Equipment for forming and heat treatment evaluation

Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator with Maxstrain module.

MTS high temperature deformation system (100KN capacity) with IR radiation furnace (capable of heating up to 1250 degree C) for simulating non-linear heating and cooling during forging.

High temperature (1200 degree C) semi-industrial size 1000-ton capacity forging press allowing the use of large billets along with the verification and validation of results obtained on the small press.

Heat treatment furnaces allowing experiments on parts of various sizes with temperatures up to 1500 degree C.

Equipment for characterization and analysis of forged products

Particle analysis: Malvern Mastersizer 3000
The Mastersizer 3000 uses laser diffraction to mesure the size of particles from powders, precipites or emulsions ranging from 0.01 to 3500 microns. The technique entails mesuring the intensity of the diffused light resulting from the interaction between the laser and the sample. The data is then analysed in order to calculate the size of the particles in sample.

Metallographic preparation
The laboratory is equipped with a metallographic preparation room fitted with a manual and mechanical brushing machine, vibrometers, an electrolytic polisher, a manual and an automatic testpiece polisher and a set of optical and binocular microscopes.

Hitachi SU-70 scanning electron microscope
The SU-70 is a new generation scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is a hot cathode Schottky microscope which uses the "semi in-lens" technology enabling the combination of high stability, high current levels and a very high resolution (1.3 nanometers).


Using various detectors, this microscope magnifies images up to 800,000 times: two secondary electron detectors, one backscattered 5-quadrant electron detector (chemical and topographical contrast) and one transmitted electron detector (STEM technology).

800,000 times bigger image of a gold deposit

Backscattered electron images of a Nickel Waspaloy-base superalloy

EDX / Chemical composition
The chemical composition is measured with a Bruker Quantax 400 EDS X-ray spectroscopy detector (EDX).
This system, which is equipped with an ultrasensitive silicon drift detector (SDD) allows the detection of light elements all the way down to beryllium.
It is calibrated according to a standard consisting of 29 pure elements and 6 alloys with a very specific composition for quantification.

Mapping of a solid-solid diffusion joint  with  the Zn, Mg and Ca distributions in green (b), red (c) and blue (d), respectively.

EBSD / Crystallographic orientation measure
The SU-70 is equipped with an Oxford HKL electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) detector with a Nordlys F+ camera combining high sensitivity and quick acquisition capacity (500 indexations/second).
The camera is linked to an acquisition and post-treatment HKL Channel 5 system allowing the characterization of microstructures by crystalline texture, disorientation distribution, size and grain shape distribution, phase identification, etc. 
EBSD mapping of a forged steel

Atomic force microscope
This microscope allows a detailed analysis of the surface mapping of materials.


Hitachi S3600N scanning electron microscope
This microscope is used to study surfaces and allows a phase composition chemical analysis for metal, polymeric or composite materials.

Essais thermo-mécaniques in situ 
The SU-70 is equipped with a Kammrath & Weiss heating traction-compression stage.
This stage allows monotone or cyclical in situ testing controllable under load or in motion. The maximum load is +/- 5000N.
A mini-extensometer allows the measurement of deformation in the useful part of the micro-testpieces.  
A heating module allows either independent heating or heating under mechanical stress. 
Thanks to a cooling system built into the stage, the maximum temperature may get to 800 oC and even nearly as high as 1000 oC for a few minutes.
Forming and heat treatment laboratory
  • Two high-temperature forming presses (steels, Ti, superalloys, etc.) under controlled atmosphere conditions.
  • 1000-ton isothermal forging press.
  • Several heat treatment furnaces allow controlled treatments (solutioning, quenching, etc.).
Residual constraints measuring system
This machine, the Proto 250, allows the measurement of residual stresses in formed, welded or machined parts.

X-ray diffraction
This equipment is currently used for all kinds of applications (chemical analysis, determination of crystalline structure, etc.).

Welding laboratory
In this laboratory, research and development work can be carried out in the areas of welding (TIG, MIG, MAG).

Forming process simulation tools
  • ANSYS-LSDYNA: This software allows small-deformation (ANSYS) and large-deformation (LSDYNA) thermal and mechanical analysis. Both software applications used at ÉTS, and have already been used to simulate forming processes.
  • ABAQUS: This software is well known in industrial and academic circles for its versatility and its capacity to simulate cold and hot forming.
  • THERCAST and FORGE3: These two software applications by TRANSVALOR are among only two or three applications in the world used to simulate forming processes. The first one, THERCAST, is used to simulate casting and the solidification structure, while FORGE3 is used to simulate solid-state forming processes (forging, rolling, extrusion) and heat treatment (quenching, tempering, annealing).